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เขียนโดย Alex ที่ ส่งอีเมลข้อมูลนี้ BlogThis! Disk drive manufacturers sometimes use both IEC and SI prefixes with their standardized meanings. Seagate has specified data transfer rates in select manuals of some hard drives with both units, with the conversion between units clearly shown and the numeric values adjusted accordingly.
Computer clock frequencies are always quoted using SI prefixes in their decimal sense. For example, the internal clock frequency of the original IBM PC was 4. Similarly, digital information transfer rates are quoted using decimal prefixes:. By the mids it was common to see K meaning and the occasional M meaning 1 for words or bytes of main memory RAM while K and M were commonly used with their decimal meaning for disk storage.
In the s, as capacities of both types of devices increased, the SI prefix G, with SI meaning, was commonly applied to disk storage, while M in its binary meaning, became common for computer memory. In the s, the prefix G, in its binary meaning, became commonly used for computer memory capacity. The first terabyte SI prefix, 1 bytes hard disk drive was introduced in The dual usage of the kilo K , mega M , and giga G prefixes as both powers of and powers of has been recorded in standards and dictionaries.
kilo K. mega M. Many dictionaries have noted the practice of using customary prefixes to indicate binary multiples. The units Kbyte, Mbyte, and Gbyte were found in the trade press and in IEEE journals. Gigabyte was formally defined in obsolete standard IEEE Std The hardware industry measures system memory RAM using the binary meaning while magnetic disk storage uses the SI definition.
However, many exceptions exist. Labeling of one type of diskette uses the megabyte to denote × bytes. Computer storage has become cheaper per unit and thereby larger, by many orders of magnitude since "K" was first used to mean Because both the SI and "binary" meanings of kilo, mega, etc.
The relative difference between the values in the binary and decimal interpretations increases, when using the SI prefixes as the base, from 2. Although the prefixes ronna and quetta have been defined, as of no names have been officially assigned to the corresponding binary prefixes. In the early days of computers roughly, prior to the advent of personal computers there was little or no consumer confusion because of the technical sophistication of the buyers and their familiarity with the products.
In addition, it was common for computer manufacturers to specify their products with capacities in full precision.
In the personal computing era, one source of consumer confusion is the difference in the way many operating systems display hard drive sizes, compared to the way hard drive manufacturers describe them.
Hard drives are specified and sold using "GB" and "TB" in their decimal meaning: one billion and one trillion bytes. Many operating systems and other software, however, display hard drive and file sizes using "MB", "GB" or other SI-looking prefixes in their binary sense, just as they do for displays of RAM capacity. For example, many such systems display a hard drive marketed as "1 TB" as " GB".
The earliest known presentation of hard disk drive capacity by an operating system using "KB" or "MB" in a binary sense is ;  earlier operating systems generally presented the hard disk drive capacity as an exact number of bytes, with no prefix of any sort, for example, in the output of the MS-DOS or PC DOS CHKDSK command. The different interpretations of disk size prefixes has led to class action lawsuits against digital storage manufacturers.
These cases involved both flash memory and hard disk drives. Early cases — were settled prior to any court ruling with the manufacturers admitting no wrongdoing but agreeing to clarify the storage capacity of their products on the consumer packaging. Accordingly, many flash memory and hard disk manufacturers have disclosures on their packaging and web sites clarifying the formatted capacity of the devices or defining MB as 1 million bytes and 1 GB as 1 billion bytes.
On 20 February , Willem Vroegh filed a lawsuit against Lexar Media, Dane—Elec Memory, Fuji Photo Film USA , Eastman Kodak Company, Kingston Technology Company, Inc. Vroegh claimed that a MB Flash Memory Device had only MB of accessible memory. The plaintiffs acknowledged that the IEC and IEEE standards define a MB as one million bytes but stated that the industry has largely ignored the IEC standards. The parties agreed that manufacturers could continue to use the decimal definition so long as the definition was added to the packaging and web sites.
On 7 July , an action entitled Orin Safier v. Western Digital Corporation, et al. was filed in the Superior Court for the City and County of San Francisco, Case No. The case was subsequently moved to the Northern District of California, Case No. Although Western Digital maintained that their usage of units is consistent with "the indisputably correct industry standard for measuring and describing storage capacity", and that they "cannot be expected to reform the software industry", they agreed to settle in March with 14 June as the Final Approval hearing date.
The settlement called for Western Digital to add a disclaimer to their later packaging and advertising. A lawsuit Cho v. Seagate Technology US Holdings, Inc. On 22 January , the district court of the Northern District of California ruled in favor of the defendant, SanDisk, upholding its use of "GB" to mean 1 bytes. While early computer scientists typically used k to mean , some recognized the convenience that would result from working with multiples of and the confusion that resulted from using the same prefixes for two different meanings.
Several proposals for unique binary prefixes [defn. Donald Morrison proposed to use the Greek letter kappa κ to denote , κ 2 to denote 2 , and so on. Wallace Givens responded with a proposal to use bK as an abbreviation for and bK2 or bK 2 for 2 , though he noted that neither the Greek letter nor lowercase letter b would be easy to reproduce on computer printers of the day.
None of these gained much acceptance, and capitalization of the letter K became the de facto standard for indicating a factor of instead of , although this could not be extended to higher powers.
As the discrepancy between the two systems increased in the higher-order powers, more proposals for unique prefixes were made. In , Markus Kuhn proposed a system with di prefixes, like the "dikilobyte" K 2 B or K2B. The set of binary prefixes that were eventually adopted, now referred to as the "IEC prefixes", [defn. At that time, it was proposed that the terms kilobyte and megabyte be used only for 10 3 bytes and 10 6 bytes, respectively.
The new prefixes kibi kilobinary , mebi megabinary , gibi gigabinary and tebi terabinary were also proposed at the time, and the proposed symbols for the prefixes were kb, Mb, Gb and Tb respectively, rather than Ki, Mi, Gi and Ti.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE began to collaborate with the International Organization for Standardization ISO and International Electrotechnical Commission IEC to find acceptable names for binary prefixes. IEC proposed kibi , mebi , gibi and tebi , with the symbols Ki, Mi, Gi and Ti respectively, in The names for the new prefixes are derived from the original SI prefixes combined with the term binary , but contracted, by taking the first two letters of the SI prefix and "bi" from binary.
The first letter of each such prefix is identical to the corresponding SI prefix, except that "k" is capitalised to "K". The IEEE decided that their standards would use the prefixes kilo , etc. with their metric definitions, but allowed the binary definitions to be used in an interim period as long as such usage was explicitly pointed out on a case-by-case basis.
In January , the IEC published the first international standard IEC Amendment 2 with the new prefixes, extended up to pebi Pi and exbi Ei. The IEC Amendment 2 also states that the IEC position is the same as that of BIPM the body that regulates the SI system ; the SI prefixes retain their definitions in powers of and are never used to mean a power of In usage, products and concepts typically described using powers of would continue to be, but with the new IEC prefixes.
For example, a memory module of bytes × 1 would be referred to as MiB or mebibytes instead of MB or megabytes. Conversely, since hard drives have historically been marketed using the SI convention that "giga" means 1 , a " GB" hard drive would still be labeled as such.
According to these recommendations, operating systems and other software would also use binary and SI prefixes in the same way, so the purchaser of a " GB" hard drive would find the operating system reporting either " GB" or " GiB", while bytes of RAM would be displayed as " MiB". The second edition of the standard, published in ,  defined them only up to exbi ,  but in , the third edition added prefixes zebi and yobi , thus matching all then-defined SI prefixes with binary counterparts.
The only significant change is the addition of explicit definitions for some quantities. were defined by ISO in their own right, independently of the kibibyte, mebibyte, and so on. The BIPM standard JCGM "International vocabulary of metrology — Basic and general concepts and associated terms VIM , 3rd edition" lists the IEC binary prefixes and states "SI prefixes refer strictly to powers of 10, and should not be used for powers of 2.
For example, 1 kilobit should not be used to represent bits 2 10 bits , which is 1 kibibit. The additional decimal prefixes ronna- for 9 and quetta- for 10 were adopted by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures BIPM in As of [update] , no corresponding binary prefixes have been adopted by the IEC and ISO. The IEC standard binary prefixes are now supported by other standardization bodies and technical organizations.
NIST suggests that in English, the first syllable of the name of the binary-multiple prefix should be pronounced in the same way as the first syllable of the name of the corresponding SI prefix, and that the second syllable should be pronounced as bee. The microelectronics industry standards body JEDEC describes the IEC prefixes in its online dictionary with a note: "The definitions of kilo, giga, and mega based on powers of two are included only to reflect common usage.
On 19 March , the IEEE standard IEEE "Prefixes for Binary Multiples" was elevated to a full-use standard by the IEEE Standards Association after a two-year trial period. The International Bureau of Weights and Measures BIPM , which maintains the International System of Units SI , expressly prohibits the use of SI prefixes to denote binary multiples, and recommends the use of the IEC prefixes as an alternative since units of information are not included in SI.
The Society of Automotive Engineers SAE prohibits the use of SI prefixes with anything but a power-of meaning, but does not recommend or otherwise cite the IEC binary prefixes. The European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization CENELEC adopted the IEC-recommended binary prefixes via the harmonization document HD Most computer hardware uses SI prefixes [defn. Main and cache memories are notable exceptions. Capacities of main memory and cache memory are usually expressed with customary binary prefixes [defn.
Some operating systems and other software continue to use the customary binary prefixes in displays of memory, disk storage capacity, and file size, but SI prefixes [defn. In the following subsections, unless otherwise noted, examples are first given using the common prefixes used in each case, and then followed by interpretation using other notation where appropriate.
Prior to the release of Macintosh System Software , file sizes were typically reported by the operating system without any prefixes. As of February [update] , most software did not distinguish symbols for binary and decimal prefixes. One of the stated goals of the introduction of the IEC prefixes was "to preserve the SI prefixes as unambiguous decimal multipliers". GNOME 's partition editor uses IEC prefixes to display partition sizes. The total capacity of the ×10 9 -byte disk is displayed as " Deluge BitTorrent client uses IEC prefixes for data rates as well as file sizes.
Example of the use of IEC binary prefixes in the Linux operating system displaying traffic volume on a network interface in kibibytes KiB and mebibytes MiB , as obtained with the ifconfig utility:. Software that uses IEC binary prefixes for powers of and uses standard SI prefixes for powers of includes:. Software that uses standard SI prefixes for powers of , and does not use any prefixes for powers of , includes:. Software that supports decimal prefixes for powers of and binary prefixes for powers of but does not follow SI or IEC nomenclature for this includes:.
Hardware types that use powers-of multipliers, such as memory, continue to be marketed with customary binary prefixes. Measurements of most types of electronic memory such as RAM and ROM are given using customary binary prefixes kilo, mega, and giga. This includes some flash memory , like EEPROMs. JEDEC Solid State Technology Association, the semiconductor engineering standardization body of the Electronic Industries Alliance EIA , continues to include the customary binary definitions of kilo, mega and giga in their Terms, Definitions, and Letter Symbols document,  and uses those definitions in later memory standards      See also JEDEC memory standards.
Many computer programming tasks reference memory in terms of powers of two because of the inherent binary design of current hardware addressing systems.
For example, a bit processor register can reference at most 65 items bytes, words, or other objects ; this is conveniently expressed as "64K" items. An operating system might map memory as byte pages , in which case exactly pages could be allocated within 33 bytes of memory: "8K" pages of "4 kilobytes" bytes each within "32 megabytes" 32 MiB of memory.
All hard disk drive manufacturers state capacity using SI prefixes. USB flash drives , flash-based memory cards like CompactFlash or Secure Digital , and flash-based solid-state drives SSDs use SI prefixes ; [defn. These include wear leveling , error correction, sparing , and metadata needed by the device's internal firmware.
Floppy disks have existed in numerous physical and logical formats , and have been sized inconsistently. In part, this is because the end user capacity of a particular disk is a function of the controller hardware, so that the same disk could be formatted to a variety of capacities.
In many cases, the media are marketed without any indication of the end user capacity, as for example, DSDD, meaning double-sided double-density. The last widely adopted diskette was the 3. This has a formatted capacity of 1 bytes or KB × , using "KB" in the customary binary sense. These are marketed as "HD", or "1. This usage creates a third definition of "megabyte" as × bytes.
When these disks were commonplace, most operating systems displayed the capacity using "MB" in the customary binary sense, resulting in a display of "1. Some users have noticed the missing 0. The earlier " KB" × bytes 5. The largest 8-inch diskette formats could contain more than a megabyte, and the capacities of those devices were often irregularly specified in megabytes, also without controversy.
Older and smaller diskette formats were usually identified as an accurate number of binary KB, for example the Apple Disk II described as "KB" had a × -byte capacity, and the original "KB" double sided, double density disk drive used on the IBM PC had a × -byte capacity. In many cases diskette hardware was marketed based on unformatted capacity, and the overhead required to format sectors on the media would reduce the nominal capacity as well and this overhead typically varied based on the size of the formatted sectors , leading to more irregularities.
The capacities of most optical disc storage media like DVD , Blu-ray Disc , HD DVD and magneto-optical MO are given using SI decimal prefixes. Thus a "MB" or "minute" CD has a nominal capacity of about MiB approximately MB. Tape drive and media manufacturers use SI decimal prefixes to identify capacity. Certain units are always used with SI decimal prefixes even in computing contexts. Bus clock speeds and therefore bandwidths are both quoted using SI decimal prefixes.
IEC prefixes are used by Toshiba ,  IBM , HP to advertise or describe some of their products. According to one HP brochure,  [ dead link ] "[t]o reduce confusion, vendors are pursuing one of two remedies: they are changing SI prefixes to the new binary prefixes, or they are recalculating the numbers as powers of ten. To help avoid inaccuracy especially with the larger prefixes and potential ambiguity, the International Electrotechnical Commission IEC in adopted a set of prefixes specifically for binary multipliers See IEC Their use is now supported by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST and incorporated into ISO They are also required by EU law and in certain contexts in the US.
However, most documentation and products in the industry continue to use SI prefixes when referring to binary multipliers. In product documentation, follow the same standard that is used in the product itself for example, in the interface or firmware. Whether you choose to use IEC prefixes for powers of 2 and SI prefixes for powers of 10, or use SI prefixes for a dual purpose be consistent in your usage and explain to the user your adopted system. The international standard ISO defines the prefixes kibi-, mebi-, gibi without limiting their application to information technology.
Uses of binary prefixes for quantities other than bits or bytes include their use to indicate binary multiples of the frequency unit hertz Hz , for example the kibihertz symbol KiHz is Hz. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. December Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Symbol placed before units of digital information to indicate multiplication by a power of two. This article is about unit prefixes, notably prefixes of units of digital information like bit and byte. For the syntactical elements used to declare the radix of a given integer literal in program code, see Integer literal § Affixes.
See also: Timeline of binary prefixes. See also: Orders of magnitude data. For other uses, see Gibi disambiguation. GNOME's system monitor uses IEC prefixes to show memory size and networking data rate.
BitTornado uses standard SI prefixes for data rates and IEC prefixes for file sizes. For example, in the computer industry's customary practice, one "megabyte" of RAM is 2 bytes of RAM, one "gigabyte" of RAM is 3 bytes of RAM, and so on.
In the IEC system, these would be expressed as one "mebibyte" and one "gibibyte", respectively. Both are "binary prefixes" in these usages. For example, "kilo" denotes , "mega" denotes 2 or one million, "giga" denotes 3 or one billion, and so on.
SI prefixes are decimal prefixes. Thus 1 mebibyte of RAM is 2 bytes of RAM, one gibibyte or 1 GiB of RAM is 3 bytes, and so on. The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty: International System of Units SI. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. National Institute of Science and Technology. United States District Court for the Northern District of California. SanDisk LLC, No.
March Ballistic Research Laboratories Report No. Of different relevant systems, utilize a straight binary system internally, whereas 53 utilize the decimal system primarily binary coded decimal and 3 systems utilize a binary coded alphanumeric system of notation.
This lengthy report describes many of the early computers. Blais, QST, January September ACM ' Preprints of Papers Presented at the 14th National Meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery. ACM Press: 78—1—78—5. doi : S2CID On a 32K core size computer, approximately 28 data may be analyzed, without resorting to auxiliary tape storage.
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